Tuesday, June 21, 2011

Thinking Outside the (Rusty) Box – I Think I’m On to Something Here

It is no secret that I couldn’t hate sand blasting more.  Having spent hours in sweltering heat shoving sand into every imaginable orifice of my car and my body, I’ve had plenty of time to think, cuss, pray and hope for some “miracle” method of removing rust without having to beat the snot out of the metal surfaces that I may not necessarily have wanted to.  At the same time, it became more and more obvious to me that sand blasting is, in many ways, most limited in its “line-of-site” cleaning method, and no matter how many “tricks” I could come up with, I simply could not figure out a good way to remove rust from enclosed panels (e.g., torque boxes, frame rails, rockers, etc.) or from the back side of many exposed panels like the interior body structural panels.  I have talked to countless restorers and hobbyists who evidently resolve themselves to simply do their best to remove what they can by hand after sand blasting or simply choose to ignore the issue figuring it will never rear its head during their lifetime.

Another drawback for me was the simple fact that sandblasting is a “fair-weather” operation that simply ceases to be an option for the better part of six months out of the year here in Michigan when winter weather socks us in.  This has a way of bringing good restoration progress to a grinding halt, allowing the dreaded “cabin fever” to set in at the most unwelcome time.
Alternative methods of rust removal are actually fairly few.  The almost universally ill-advised method of “dipping” a body shell in a caustic solvent concoction to remove all manner of paint, sealant, undercoating, adhesive, rust and a fair amount of good metal was never a prospective solution on my car.  Too many times have I heard and seen the terrible after-effects of the acid cleaning solution leeching its way out of hidden seams and flanges years down the road, ruining expensive bodywork and paint and sometimes even the very structure itself even after thorough rinsing when the job was completed.  No sir……not for me.

So anyway, I have been pondering and researching other alternative methods of rust removal and may have just stumbled on the closest thing to an automotive restoration “miracle”.  The process is generically called “chelation” (Key-Lay-Shun) and is quite new technology, having only been around for about the last 10 years or so.  Apparently, chelation technology has been around in the medical industry and is used in the event of “heavy-metal” poisoning (e.g., lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.) to rid the bloodstream of toxic metallic ions.  Essentially, the chelant (Key-Lint) captures the metal ions and holds them in suspension in the bloodstream in a form that allows the body to naturally rid itself of these toxic ions.  Clever technology to be sure.
Somewhere along the way, someone got the idea that this same characteristic may apply to rust (iron oxide) and pretty soon, the chelation process was found to be a surprisingly mild but amazingly effective rust remover.  Acceptance of the idea that a fluid that is 80% water and can be disposed of like mop water could actually remove rust anywhere water could go is another thing entirely.  Even though I too found the idea somewhat hard to grasp, I set off to research the possibilities of such a rust removal method and got increasingly intrigued by the possibilities. 

From a commercial rust removal standpoint, it’s not likely that you will find many restoration shops rushing out to adopt chelation as a profitable means of rust removal.  First off, it’s a slow process that can require a good bit of simple, but rather bulky equipment to get working.  Secondly, the chelant itself can be rather expensive and somewhat short lived.  But once you see the process work, you mind races around just LOOKING for rusty parts to restore.
After a while, I decided a test flight was a necessity and quickly took inventory of the landscape surrounding the chelation process and few things became glaringly obvious.  To begin, the selection of chelation products is can be categorized into two groups:  1) “ready-to-use” product or 2) concentrated product.  Now, remember I mentioned earlier that the chelant was an 80% water solution and the products are expensive?  Well, the tightwad in me quickly decided I wasn’t about to pay someone else to ship me several gallons of WATER via the costly ground shipping services just to get a few pints of chelant.  So, without further contemplation, I decided to focus on purchasing the concentrated product and supplying my own water, realizing a SIGNIFICANT savings in the end.  Suddenly, the up-front cost of entry into the chelation process just got a little less painful.

So for my first foray into the chelation experiment, I purchased two gallons of concentrate from a supplier who had perhaps the most visually convincing websites on the subject.  After a few pointed Q&A emails, I dropped the bones and waited for the product to arrive.  When it did, I wasted no time in reading every shred of material included with the product and promptly set off mixing up my very own chelation solution in a 1:4 ratio (1 gallon chelant with 4 gallons distilled water).  Having no real idea what I was doing, I mixed up a full 10 gallons of solution (won’t do that again) and started my experimentation.
The chelation process has two basic methods of application to remove rust from any part.  If the part is relatively small, it can be very effectively cleaned of all rust by immersing it completely in the chelant for a period of time.  The time required will depend heavily on the cleanliness of the part (no oil, grease, dirt, etc.), the amount of rust and the temperature of the solution.  Removal of the rust can take a little as a few minutes to several hours.

The second application method is constant spray of the chelant onto the rusted part.  This is quite good at removing rust from large body panels, but requires quite a bit of equipment to be effective and tends to be a bit messy until you get the hang of corralling the fluid and keeping waste to a minimum (still working on this little detail).
I started quite simply by immersing my crusty old front cross member and a pair of rear headliner tack strips in the solution overnight.  All of these parts were covered in rust and I figured I could afford to lose them if everything went wrong.  To my absolute amazement, all of the parts were completely void of all rust after about 10 hours of soak time in the solution!  Forty years of crusty rust was simply washed away from the cross member and both tack strips looked as though they were fresh out of the stamping die.  Not being so easily convinced, I took one of the tack strips to work with me and put it under a 100x stereo microscope to see just how effective the rust was removed.  Again, to my utter amazement, there was not one single hint of rust on the part even in the deepest pores of the micro-pitted surface.  This stuff is truly amazing.

My next experiment involved cascading the solution over my severely pitted roof panel to see how that technique would work.  Here is where my own carelessness bit me as I found the tarp I used to try and channel the solution into the wading pool reservoir I fashioned leaked and deposited over half of my precious miracle fluid all over my shop floor.  Ugh!  After a string of choice expletives and mental fit-throwing, I managed to get a Rube Goldberg recovery apparatus configured that worked pretty well and also refined my application method by building a spray bar delivery system from some PVC pipe and fittings.  This worked acceptably and the roof began showing incredible improvement after several hours of soak time.  Unfortunately, my fluid volume was no down to about 4 gallons and it quickly saturated with rusty solute and the process slowed considerably.  I should note that this is NOT the fault of the fluid but my own carelessness.  Had I not managed to loose so much of the fluid on the floor, the cleaning action would have been much quicker and more efficient.  In spite of my rookie failings, I consider the experiment an overwhelming success and I will continue to refine the process and experiment more thoroughly as I continue eradicating the rust on my car.
Before I wrap on this installment, I must share a few caveats to this entry for clarity.  First, I purposely have not mentioned the product I used as I am not quite ready to offer an endorsement given I have only tried one of the two concentrated products on the market.  My next round will be with the second product and after a fair evaluation of each; I will divulge the source I feel is best.  Secondly, I have discovered MANY ways the process can be refined and improved for the home restoration enthusiasts.  Things like heating the solution for increased effectiveness and speed and filtering the solution to increase life are all tasks I intend to tackle and fully document here.  So, rest assured, there will be at least two or three more installments on this subject as I move forward and I truly hope it will provide inspiration to many on what the chelation rust removal process can do.  As for me, I can hardly contain my enthusiasm for the prospect of walking away from sandblasting for the majority of rust removal work that remains!  Stay tuned!

As I have decided to dedicate to using the chelation rust removal process throughout my restoration, I decided to invest in clear, 5-gallon storage jugs to store my stock of fluid.  The chelant concentrate is to the right in the two one-gallon jugs and has a slight yellow tinge to it.

The chelant concentrate will not become "active" until you add water.  However, the quality of water you add can have a huge influence on the effectiveness of the solution.  The absolute best option is to use pure distilled water, which runs roughly $1/gallon at the local grocery store.

In my other life as a custom powder coater, I am constantly fighting flash rust problems on bare steel.  This custom bike frame was a great candidate for gentle rust removal and I discovered the solution works fantastic on removing flux residues from the brazed areas.  The color of the fluid is very exaggerated here due to the influence of the lavender-colored material of the wading pool combined with the slight yellow color of the chelation solution.

My first "real" test of the chelation rust removal process was on my old, original Mustang cross member.  Other than being power washed, what you see is the sum of 40 years of neglect.

Side view of the rusty cross member.

Close-up view of the cross member for future reference.

After an overnight soak in the chelation solution, All that remained of the original cross member was nice clean bare steel and original paint.
Here is the top view of the cleaned cross member.

Here is the "after" reference close-up.  The results were truly hard to imagine.  Absolutely no rust anywhere with the added benefit of leaving the paint untouched.
My second and perhaps most impressive experiment was to remove the rust from these two headliner tack strips.  You can see that both parts were completely covered in surface rust.

An overnight soak and both tack strips looked like they were fresh from the stamping die.  Cloe-inspection under a 100x microscope showed that every last bit of rust had been removed, even in the deepest mirco-pits in the metal surface.
To try the process on a larger scale, I needed to devise a way to apply a cascade of solution over the surface of the panel.  I picked up these inexpensive garden sprayers for my first attempt.

Careful adjustment of the "throttle" on the sprayer allowed a section about 10 inches wide to be treated at one time on my roof panel.  Not quite what I wanted.

Re-orienting the sprayer to the side and changing the spray pattern to more of a shower, I was able to cover slightly less than half the roof panel.  Also, this section had been previously sand blasted, so don't mistake the contrast line in this photo for an indicator of the effectiveness of the process.  That comes later.
With the cascade method of application, the task of recovering the fluid is tougher than you think.  It took a few fumbles before I got it right.
Unfortunately, my biggest fumble cost me over half of my expensive solution in only a few seconds.  Lesson 1 in "what not to do".

I had to devise a number of down-n-dirty recovery aids to avoid expensive fluid loss.  A scrap of aluminum dryer duct material worked great as a drain trough back to the wading pool reservoir.

After about one hour, the reduction in rust is quite noticeable.

After 4 hours, only slight traces of rust remain in the deepest pits.  The darker shaded areas are spots where black oxide residue has settled on the panel.  Black oxide is not detrimental and is easily cleaned off the surface.

This is a close-up of the deepest pitted section of the roof panel.  Absolutely no rust remains after about 10 hours of treatment.

As my enthusiasm and excitement gained momentum, I devised a spray bar from PVC pipe to distribute solution over the entire roof panel evenly.  This method proved very efficient and effective and I will use variations on the theme in future rust removal exercises.
Here, you can see the extent of rust on the rear half of the roof as I began the chelation process using the spray bar cascade method.  Take careful note of the large, oval patch of rust in the middle of the image.

After about 4 hours under the cascade, you can see that the large patch of "rust" actually included a significant area of red oxide primer that was otherwise undetectable!  Also, note the significant reduction in rust on the surrounding surface.

As the chelant holds more and more rust in suspension, the fluid becomes darker.  The instructions say the fluid remains effective until it becomes pitch black (saturated).  Unfortunately, I lost so much of my fluid in my inadvertent "spill" I couldn't complete the roof before the remaining fluid was saturated.  Valuable lessons learned in any case.
Here is an eye-opening contrast.  The left side is the roof panel as it started and the right side is the roof panel when I reached the stopping point.  While some rust still remains to be removed in the deepest pits, the rest is completely gone and the remaining metal looks almost factory fresh.  Yep........I think I'm definitely on to something here!

Sunday, June 5, 2011

Lokar E-Brake Handle Installation & Cowl / Firewall Priming

I have always disliked the factory Mustang e-brake pedal and cable mechanism.  To me, having 4 pedals on the floor always seemed to look odd and I’ve always been irritated by the look of e-brake cables dangling underneath the exhaust and trans.  In the back of my mind, I was committed to do better than that on my car and after years of looking at factory late-model Mustang e-brake handles and not liking them much either, I ran across a very nifty e-brake handle from Lokar that couldn’t be more perfect for the job.

The part I settled on was one of Lokar’s floor mount emergency hand brake kits in black powder coat finish (Part # XEHB-7000F).  If I didn’t know better, I’d think the folks at Lokar designed this e-brake handle kit just for the 1970 Mustang floor pan!  The length is perfect for the space available.  Of course, this handle will not work in any car with a center console, but I am not of fan of them in muscle cars.  I have always been one for the lean-n-mean interior look in muscle cars:  there’s nothing better than a 4-speed shifter dominating the trans tunnel landscape with a simple articulated shifter boot and a nice chrome bezel at the floor.  To me that look just screams “ALL BUSINESS” and that’s the look I intend to preserve in my car.

The Lokar e-brake kit is very nicely made, but installation instructions were conspicuously absent.  After a little study, I determined exactly where the handle should go and what size the opening needed to be in the trans tunnel to allow it to fit just right.  I decided that I didn’t want to rely on the single layer of steel in to top of the tunnel to be all that supported the handle during operation, so I made a template that allowed me to make a reinforcement plate and to provide a consistent pattern to accurately locate the mounting bolt holes along with the tunnel slot.

Once I laid out all of the features of the template, I positioned the template on the trans tunnel in the exact location that the e-brake handle needed to go and taped it down with masking tape to prevent it from moving while I transfer punched the hole locations.  I determined the slot needed to be 1” wide.  This would allow plenty of clearance for the handle and make it very easy to drill the 1” holes at each end of the slot with a step-drill.

With all of the holes located and punched, I drilled 1/8” pilot holes at each location.  I enlarged the 4 mounting holes with a 21/64” bit to allow a good fit for the 5/16” mounting bolts.  Next, I enlarged the slot end holes to 1” with my handy-dandy step drill and deburred all the holes to remove any sharp edges and burs.  Then, I simply connected the two large slot holes with straight lines on each side and cut out the center of the slot using my cutoff wheel.  After a quick touch with the angle grinder, the slot was complete and I could now concentrate on the reinforcement plate.

Using the same pattern I used to locate the holes on the tunnel, I laid out the same pattern on a piece of 16-gage sheet metal I stained with machinists dye.  Using the same techniques I used on the tunnel, I drilled all of the holes to the aforementioned sizes and cut the slot as before.  Now I had a reinforcement plate that perfectly matched the trans tunnel slot.  Once I was satisfied that all of the holes lined up and the fit was perfect, I drilled six plug weld holes in the plate to allow me to weld the plate to the bottom of the trans tunnel.  Using drifts to ensure perfect alignment of the plate to the tunnel, I plug welded the plate and ground all of the welds smooth on the top and bottom.  After a quick couple of coats of SEM high-build primer, the plate looks factory made and the fit is fantastic!

The last step in the e-brake installation was to fit the cable anchor block into the tunnel, behind the handle assembly.  There’s no real science to its placement other than to make sure the cables will transfer smoothly to the tensioner block on the handle.  Once I had the location pinned down, a couple of holes were drilled for the ¼” mounting bolts and the entire installation was done.
Here is the Lokar floor mount emergency hand brake kit loosely assembled with the cable tensioner assembly already attached.  The tensioner is part of the cable kit that corresponds to the handle kit.

I made this simple template to allow accurate mounting hole location and to act as a template for a reinforcing plate that will be welded to the bottom of the trans tunnel for support.

I taped the template to the tunnel in the exact location I wanted the handle to be so I could accurately locate all of the bolt holes.

Using a sharp punch, I marked each hole center with a light tap of a hammer.

Here you can see the center punch marks for each hole after the template pattern has been removed.

I pre-drilled the center of each hole with a 1/8" drill bit to allow easy starting of the larger bits and accurate hole location.

The slot was completed by cutting the flats using a cutoff wheel.  Once all of the holes were drilled and deburred, I touched the edges with my angle grinder and the tunnel modification was done.

I used the same drilling template pattern to make the reinforcement plate from 16-gage steel.  I used Dykem machinist dye to aid in laying out the holes on the plate.

A test fit confirms all is well and the time for drilling plug weld holes had come.

The plate was plug welded to the trans tunnel using long drifts to align the plate with the mounting holes in the tunnel.

Excellent weld penetration is reflected on the top of the tunnel.

A few minutes with the angle grinder and the welds were in good shape for priming.

After a coat of SEM high build primer, the e-brake slot and reinforcing plate look like they belong there.

Here is a look at the Lokar e-brake handle mocked up in place.

Doesn't that handle look right at home on the Mustang trans tunnel?

Here is the handle in the fully engaged position.  Perfect.

Here is the e-brake handle with the cable adjuster installed.

Here is a look at the handle and cable anchor relationship after all installation is complete.

Here is a close-up look at the cable anchor plate from the handle side.

And another look from the cable side.

Interior Quarter Trim Mounts:

While I had the welder warmed up, I decided to reinstall the rear interior quarter trim panel mounts back in the rear floor area.  Though covered in surface rust, by some miracle these mounts survived in good shape and were quite easy to return to serviceable condition.  Using measurements I had taken before their removal, I welded the mounts back into the car in the exact location from which they were removed.
Left side interior quarter trim mounting bracket welded in.

Right side interior quarter trim bracket.

Cowl & Firewall Priming:

I am still trying to better discipline myself to avoid having bare steel unnecessarily exposed for any length of time.  As such, I have been prepping the cowl and firewall area for primer/sealer to ensure I don’t have to chase rust until the end of my days.

In my last update, I had filled a few areas of the firewall where toe board and clutch explosion repairs had been made.  While these repairs are not absolutely complete (glazing and high build primer will do the rest) I decided to prime all of these areas at the same time I did the cowl panel and end enclosures.  I am quite happy with how everything turned out even though I have a few runs in the primer as a result of my trying a new gravity-feed HVLP turbine gun and having a bit of a time getting used to it.  Nothing a nib file and some fine sandpaper won’t cure.

Anyway, that’s all I have for now.  There’s quite a bit more prepping and priming to do on the floor in preparation for welding in the 4-link mounts and subframe connectors, so there’s plenty more to come.
Though there is still plenty of work left to do on the firewall, the major damage has been repaired and it looks 1000% better than it did just a few months ago.  Clutch explosion damage is invisible as are the toe board repairs.

With the cowl end enclosures and cowl tied together in a coat of primer, the whole works looks quite good.

My new HVLP gravity feed turbine gun took a bit of getting used to, but overall, it put down PPG DP-40LF primer down quite well.